What&Why

Cybersecurity and Privacy

Search through over 120 million documents

A new threat

Francesca Bosco, UNICRI Programme Officer, United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute, talks about cyberattacks, information systems and networks, iot, cybersecuirity risks, threats and vulnerabilities.

A complex world

Francesca Bosco, UNICRI Programme Officer, United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute, talks about hackers, cybercriminals, profile crackers, cyberwarriors, cyberspies and organized criminal groups.

Coming challenges

Francesca Bosco, UNICRI Programme Officer, United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute, talks about malware, cyberconflicts and the need for a convention on cyberspace.

The value of privacy

Frederike Kaltheuner, Data Exploitation programme lead at Privacy International, talks about security, marketing, data privacy and mass surveillance.

GDPR, a new era?

Frederike Kaltheuner, Data Exploitation programme lead at Privacy International, talks about Gdpr, the GAFA multinationals, compliance, fines, extraterritorial scope and digital rights.

What is needed

Frederike Kaltheuner, Data Exploitation programme lead at Privacy International, talks about profiling, data harvesting, prediction, automated systems, AI, informed decision and the Cambridge Analytica scandal.


Ask a researcher on
Cybersecurity and Privacy

Articles

Internet for All: A Framework for Accelerating Internet Access and Adoption

Vv.Aa. White Paper . 2016 mendeley

Human factors in cybersecurity; examining the link between Internet addiction, impulsivity, attitudes towards cybersecurity, and risky cybersecurity behaviours

Hadlington, Lee Heliyon . 2017 mendeley

The truth about blockchain

Vv.Aa. Harvard Business Review . 2017 mendeley

1 Blockchain's roles in meeting key supply chain management objectives

Kshetri, Nir International Journal of Information Management . 2018 mendeley

Can Blockchain Strengthen the Internet of Things?

Kshetri, Nir IT Professional . 2017 mendeley

Internet of Things: Architectures, Protocols, and Applications

Vv.Aa. Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering . 2017 mendeley

An Overview of Blockchain Technology: Architecture, Consensus, and Future Trends

Vv.Aa. Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 6th International Congress on Big Data, BigData Congress 2017 . 2017 mendeley

Internet for All: A Framework for Accelerating Internet Access and Adoption

Vv.Aa. White Paper . 2016 mendeley

Human factors in cybersecurity; examining the link between Internet addiction, impulsivity, attitudes towards cybersecurity, and risky cybersecurity behaviours

Hadlington, Lee Heliyon . 2017 mendeley

The truth about blockchain

Vv.Aa. Harvard Business Review . 2017 mendeley

1 Blockchain's roles in meeting key supply chain management objectives

Kshetri, Nir International Journal of Information Management . 2018 mendeley

Can Blockchain Strengthen the Internet of Things?

Kshetri, Nir IT Professional . 2017 mendeley

Internet of Things: Architectures, Protocols, and Applications

Vv.Aa. Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering . 2017 mendeley

An Overview of Blockchain Technology: Architecture, Consensus, and Future Trends

Vv.Aa. Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 6th International Congress on Big Data, BigData Congress 2017 . 2017 mendeley

Singapore's cybersecurity strategy

TER, Kah Leng Computer Law & Security Review . August 2018 sciencedirect

SEC's cybersecurity disclosure guidance and disclosed cybersecurity risk factors

Li, He; No, Won Gyun; Wang, Tawei International Journal of Accounting Information Systems . September 2018 sciencedirect

A review of standards with cybersecurity requirements for smart grid

Leszczyna, Rafał Computers & Security . August 2018 sciencedirect

Cybersecurity and Training for Everyone

I was quite impressed with Dr. Bosco’s “A New Threat” presentation. She made an excellent point on setting the Cybersecurity mind set. What do you think are some ways regular folks who are not IT savvy can be educated about the significance of cybersecurity and their role in preventing cybercrime?

Reply provided from a researcher of Michigan State University, Department of Computer Science and Engineering

When it comes to educating regular folks about cybersecurity and the prevention of cybercrime, I would imagine the best course of action is to (1) stress the importance of secure passwords, (2) monitor your financial accounts regularly, (3) never ignore software updates, and (4) learn what social engineering is and what social engineering scams exist today. These are all relatively simple tasks that can go a long way in making it immensely harder for a cybercriminal to access your data.

Privacy and Making Money in the World Today

In the “Value of Privacy” discussion Dr. Kaltheuner talks about the way businesses make money when their product or service is free. They say, “whenever you are not paying for service you are the product”. Does that hold true in the world of IT where we pay a pretty penny for things such as phones, tablets, and broadband connections? I have done some research, and it seems, companies are all the same—even if you are paying for the service, you are still the product! Would you agree?

Reply provided from a researcher of University of Illinois, Department of Computer Science

I agree. Anyone who spends much time online knows the saying: “If you’re not paying, you’re the product”. That’s not exactly correct. On the internet, you’re nearly always the product. And while most internet users know that some of their personal data is being collected and monetized, few are aware of the sheer scale of the issue, particularly when it comes to apps.

Brexit and GDPR

As far as I know the United Kingdom is leaving the European Union in March of 2019. Will that affect GDPR in any way? I would assume that an equivalent set of data protection regulations need to be in place in order for the UK to be able to continue trading with the EU but I would appreciate your professional opinion on the subject.

Reply provided from a researcher of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Informatics

The UK Data Protection Act 2018 implements the General Data Protection Regulation and replaces the UK Data Protection Act 1998. Regardless of Brexit, it will reiterate the UK’s commitment to the privacy principles enshrined in the EU Regulation. For anyone who may have doubted the UK’s committed to the GDPR post-Brexit, this announcement would appear to send a clear message that the UK remains focused on ensuring a robust privacy environment.

Identifying Fake News

Back in the old days, when people got their news mainly from papers, magazines, radio and television, it was generally easy to figure out when someone was pulling your leg. Today a lot of online sites are peddling false and salacious tales to drive traffic to their site and rake in ad revenue. Is there a sure-fire way for one to ensure they are not being bamboozled?

Reply provided from a researcher of University of Maryland, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering

While there is no sure-fire way to identify fake news, here are some useful suggestions. Check the publisher’s credibility, pay attention to quality and timeliness, check the sources and citations, ask the pros. The last piece of advice refers to sites like FactCheck.org, International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), PolitiFact.com, or Snopes.com. Do your own detective work and feel more confident in being able to identify fact vs. fiction.

Protecting Consumer Rights in Europe

In the USA consumer rights are protected by the Federal Trade Commission. The FTC agency uses law enforcement, policy initiatives, and consumer and business education to protect consumers’ personal information. Does the European Union have an equivalent agency, organization, or office that handles anti-trust investigations?

Reply provided from a researcher of Duke University, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering

You are looking for the European Commission on Competition (http://ec.europa.eu/competition/). European antitrust policy is developed from two central rules set out in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union: First, Article 101 of the Treaty prohibits agreements between two or more independent market operators which restrict competition. Second, Article 102 of the Treaty prohibits firms that hold a dominant position on a given market to abuse that position, for example by charging unfair prices, by limiting production, or by refusing to innovate to the prejudice of consumers.

Genetic Testing and Privacy Concerns

I have heard that it is possible for individuals to be barred from employment or lose their health and life insurance based on an apparent or perceived genetic abnormality and that it may not matter if you are clinically healthy and exhibit none of the symptoms of a genetic disorder. Is there any legislation in Europe that tackles DNA testing and its ramifications?

Reply provided from a researcher of Rheinisch-Westfalische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Lehrstuhl fuer Informatik 6 - Computer Science Department

Currently there is currently no legislation for ‘direct to consumer’ (DTC) DNA tests. However, it has long been accepted that the EU directive for in vitro diagnostic medical devices (currently the IVD Directive 98/79/EC) is being updated to do just that.

Are big data used in cyber security? Why and How ?

A friend of mine told me he's using big data to track possible hacker attacks. I don't understand how the two things are related.

Reply provided from a researcher of Universitat Augsburg, ZD.B Department of Embedded Intelligence for Health Care and Wellbeing

Hackers don't follow the rules, this is where machine learning comes into play. Usually AI is used to find hidden rules in the data, but it is also useful in finding unusual behaviours. Probably your friend have access to some traffic monitoring tools, so he can work on really big data of security events. Only small part of them are security incidents, and he's task is to identify security incidents with minimum positive or negative false alarms. By accurately training an AI machine, he can filter out all false positives and track only the real suspect behaviours. And this tracking can be done in realtime, so that the possible hacker could be reported to some human agent that can follow his navigation and confirm suspect activities or improve the training of the AI machine.

Are complex passwords really secure, if they are so hard to remember that you write them down?

When you go to a web site, you have to enter a password that must have capital letters, numbers, symbols and so on. So you end up by creating a password that is impossible to remember and you write it down on a piece of paper or, even worse, in a file on your computer. Is this really the safest way ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Information and Communication Technologies

You have to understand how passwords are broken, so you will realize why they must be complex and not human generated.

With all those very good coders and hackers, why there are no schools in which they teach other how to do it ?

It is so difficult to find good coders that are also teachers. Why this ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Information and Communication Technologies

I can think of multiple reasons. They don’t consider themselves any different from you. If you straight up ask someone how did they become so good at something, they will stutter for a while and then murmur something along the lines of “Hard work, I guess.” or “No idea.” There really aren’t any tricks to it. They want to share their knowledge, but can’t figure out how to. They obviously can’t have one on one sessions with everyone who is interested. Some people write on Quora, some have personal blogs or Medium, others spend their time on StackOverflow. Online courses are gaining traction as well, but most of them are designed to please a wider audience with different sets of experience. They don’t have the time. They are too busy between their jobs, personal life, and hobbies. You are not entitled to receive anything from them, it’s their choice if they would rather not waste time on you They are much more interested in using their skills to write code, than teach other persons how to do it. Most successful people are self taught, at least up to some degree. They didn’t wait around for someone to tell them exactly what to do. The just started to study and learned everything by themselves.

What is the distinction between distributed and concurrent systems?

This is a question I found in one of the exam I am preparing

Reply provided from a researcher of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

In computing, concurrency refers to multiple things that overlap in time, so that one starts before the other finishes.  It is commonly confused with parallelism, which is multiple things happening at the same time.  Multiple processes or threads on a single time-sliced CPU might exhibit concurrency but not parallelism.

Encryption

How does an encryption algorithm work?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Biophysics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Bioinformatics and Mathematical Modelling

Encryption is the process of converting plaintext into a secret code format referred as “Ciphertext”. To convert the text, algorithm uses a string of bits referred as “keys” for calculations. The larger the key, the greater the number of potential patterns for creating cipher text. Most encryption algorithm use codes fixed blocks of input that have a fixed length of bits ranging from 128 bit up to 4K bits or even more, while some uses stream method. Stream ciphers encrypt bits individually. This is achieved by adding a bit from a key stream to a plaintext bit. So the message to encrypt is not divided into blocks.

Asymmetric and Symmetric Encryptions

What is the difference between Asymmetric and Symmetric encryption and which one is better?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Biophysics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Symmetric encryption uses the same key for both encryption and decryption, while Asymmetric encryption uses different keys for encryption and decryption. Symmetric is usually much faster but the key needs to be transferred over an unencrypted channel. Asymmetric on the other hand is more secure but slow. Hence, a hybrid approach should be preferred. Setting up a channel using asymmetric encryption and then sending the data using symmetric process.

What is an IPS and how does it differ from IDS?

I talk about detection and prevention system. What the use of a detection system that do not prevent intrusions?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Biophysics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

IDS is an intrusion detection system whereas an IPS is an intrusion prevention system. IDS will just detect the intrusion and will leave the rest to the administrator for further action whereas an IPS will detect the intrusion and will take further action to prevent the intrusion. Another difference is the positioning of the devices in the network. Although they work on the same basic concept, but the placement is different.

Hackers bad and good ?

What is a Black hat, white hat and Grey hat hacker?

Reply provided from a researcher of Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski

Black hat hackers are those who hack without authority. White hat hackers are authorized to perform a hacking attempt under signed NDA, usually are hired by security companies to test new security system or perform security assessment on third party system or website. Grey hat hackers are white hat hackers which sometimes perform unauthorized activities.

What is DDoS and how do we mitigate it?

I was looking at some cheap hosting services and many of them list DDoS prevention system among the various characteristics.

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Biophysics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

DDoS stands for distributed denial of service. When a network/server/application is flooded with large number of requests which it is not designed to handle making the server unavailable to the legitimate requests. The requests can come from different not related sources hence it is a distributed denial of service attack. It can be mitigated by analyzing and filtering the traffic in the scrubbing centers. The scrubbing centers are centralized data cleansing station wherein the traffic to a website is analyzed and the malicious traffic is removed.

Any points on Web server hardening?

Why is it necessary ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

Web server hardening is filtering of unnecessary services running on various ports and removal of default test scripts from the servers. Although web server hardening is a lot more than this and usually organizations have a customized checklist for hardening the servers. Any server getting created has to be hardened and hardening has to be re-confirmed on a yearly basis. Even the hardening checklist has to be reviewed on a yearly basis for new add-ons. These checklists usually contains things like: keeping software up to date, disable unused software modules, disable any unused port and protocol, Turn off Directory Listing.

What is data leakage?

How will you detect and prevent it?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Biophysics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Data leak is when data gets out of the organization in an unauthorized way. Data can get leaked through various ways – emails, prints, laptops getting lost, unauthorized upload of data to public portals, removable drives, photographs etc. There are various controls which can be placed to ensure that the data does not get leaked, a few controls can be restricting upload on internet websites, following an internal encryption solution, restricting the mails to internal network, restriction on printing confidential data etc.

Users rights and Administrative rights

In a situation where a user needs admin rights on his system to do daily tasks, what should be done – should admin access be granted or restricted?

Reply provided from a researcher of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Information and Communication Technologies

Users are usually not provided with admin access to reduce the risk, but in certain cases the users can be granted admin access. Just ensure that the users understand their responsibility. In case any incident happens, the access should be provided for only limited time post senior management approval and a valid business justification. Daily tasks should never be executed with admin security level, because at this level, there is the possibility to execute unwanted commands like: start a backup during working hours, upgrading the system, that offline some components or services and so on.

Do I use open source or licensed software ?

In a situation where both Open source software and licensed software are available to get the job done. What should be preferred and why?

Reply provided from a researcher of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Linguistic Modeling and Knowledge Processing

For an enterprise, it is better to go for the licensed version of the software as most of the software have an agreement clause that the software should be used for individual usage and not for commercial purpose. Plus, the licensed version is updated and easy to track in an organization. It also helps the clients develop a confidence on the organizations’ software and practices.

How should data archives be maintained?

Should I continue using local storage or move everything to the cloud ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences, Mathematical Methods for Sensor Information Processing Department

Gone are the times when there used to be files and cabinets which held data over the years. This phase was long followed by archiving data over magnetic tapes and storing the tapes. There is another overhead for the maintenance and safety of the tapes. These are few conventional approaches, but the world is slightly moving to the cloud storage architecture. The only hurdle is the data privacy. Companies are not very sure about handing the critical data. This will actually take time but securely configured and managed cloud can be one of the best options.

The two Factor Authentication

How can Two Factor Authentication be implemented for the public facing websites?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St.

The two-factor authentication or shortly abbreviated as 2FA acts as another or an extra seal on your already protected account with a password. This two-factor authentication can be implemented on public-facing websites like Microsoft, Twitter, Apple, Google and LinkedIn. For enabling such services, one can easily go to settings and then to manage security settings. Here, you will find the option of enabling two factor authentications.

Threats or Vulnerabilities

being a professional, what is more important threats or vulnerabilities?

Reply provided from a researcher of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of IandC Tech.

Despite the advancements in the security systems with the years, the threats and vulnerabilities have only increased with each passing day. Assessing threats is still not under the control of any high-tech security team. Although, a threat rises from vulnerability, so if we have proper control over them, we can still try and control threats. Secondly, the type of threats remains same, but the vulnerabilities are what keep on changing. Thus, we need to focus on building something that has a proper defense mechanism and also can track down new vulnerabilities. 

Brute force attacks

What are the techniques used in preventing a brute force login attacks ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski

To avoid brute force login attacks, you generally have three kinds of techniques to go about. The first technique is to implement a policy for account lockout. In this method, an account will be locked out unless and until the administrator himself opens it. The second being progressive delays. In this method, after a few attempts of login, your account will stay locked for the next few number of days. Lastly, use a challenge-response test. This prevents any kind of automatic submissions on the login page.

What are salted hashes?

I know what a hash is, but I never heard about the salt…

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

Salt is a random data. When a properly protected password system receives a new password, it creates a hash value of that password, a random salt value, and then the combined value is stored in its database. This helps to defend against dictionary attacks and known hash attacks. Example: If someone uses the same password on two different systems and they are being used using the same hashing algorithm, the hash value would be same, however, if even one of the system uses salt with the hashes, the value will be different.

How could identity theft be prevented?

I am managing a website and I am really worried about someone entering the system and using other person’s account to do unwanted purchases or even worse.

Reply provided from a researcher of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Linguistic Modeling and Knowledge Processing

Here’s what you can do to prevent identity theft: Ensure strong and unique password, Avoid sharing confidential information online, especially on social media, Shop from known and trusted websites, Use the latest version of the browsers, Install advanced malware and spyware tools, Use specialized security solutions against financial data, Always update your system and the software, Protect your SSN (Social Security Number).

What is Cognitive Cybersecurity?

Cybersecurity is a quite clear term, but what is Cognitive Cybersecurity ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, Faculty of Telecommunications at Technical

Cognitive Cybersecurity is an application of AI technologies patterned on human thought processes to detect threats and protect physical and digital systems. Self-learning security systems use data mining, pattern recognition, and natural language processing to simulate the human brain, albeit in a high-powered computer model.

Risks using open Wifi

I am using an unsecured Wifi from a neighbor. Can they discover my log in name & password? What about my IP, can they track me with Gmap Location using IP?

Reply provided from a researcher of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

You should know better than to use your neighbor’s Wi-Fi. It could be a honeypot – a trap set up to detect, deflect, or neutralize your attempts at using his network unrightfully. If your neighbor happens to be tech savvy, he/she might use the connection to hack your devices, to attribute nasty browsing history to you or even attribute felonies to you. Once a cyber criminals gains access to your system, he can do pretty much whatever he wants.

About Edward Snowden

Why couldn’t the NSA spot that Edward Snowden was a security risk before he stole and leaked all of those documents?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences, Department of Parallel Algorithms

Edward Snowden is an example of how an insider can operate to exfiltrate information from an organization, be it a government facility or a corporation. You may be surprised to find out that a whopping 59% of employees steal proprietary corporate data when they quit or are fired. But sometimes it’s not malicious intent that causes data leakage from an organization. Sometimes, it’s social engineering – the tactic used by cyber criminals to manipulate people and persuade them to provide passwords or confidential data that shouldn’t be shared.

How do online entrepreneurs get hold of my information?

In most of the sites you have to provide personal information, what these info used for ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

If you filled out a form or participated in a contest, you gave out your details which they can decide to use for marketing purposes or sell it to another company. Most of the free games some websites allow you to enjoy come after you have provided them with your personal info in exchange. It’s that easy. If you don’t want your info to be used or given to another party, make a point of reading the “privacy policy” section first.

What should I do if my account has been hacked?

I am using a strong password, never share it with someone but what should I do in case someone break into one of my accounts

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

If your account has been hacked, the hacker may use your details for financial gain or post unusual content to taint your good name. If your password wasn’t changed, you can log in to your account and change the password to lock the hacker out. If the password was changed, you will need to contact customer support and report the issue. You will be required to provide some form of verification upon which your account will be restored.

Why do you need DNS monitoring?

Why do I need DNS monitoring?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

The DNS allows your website under a certain domain that is easily recognizable and also keeps the information about other domain names. It works like a directory for everything on the internet. Thus, DNS monitoring is very important since you can easily visit a website without actually having to memorize their IP address.

Is Facebook safe?

With all the info I provide to them I am at risk ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Biophysics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Overall, Facebook as a website is a pretty safe place. There is built-in security that helps to protect you and your information. One primary level of security that Facebook uses is called Secure Socket Layer (SSL). In a nutshell, this type of security encrypts (protects) any data transmitted while using Facebook, from login credentials to chat conversations. One last note: don’t post on any Internet website anything too personal are that you don’t want to be reused by someone for any purpose.

The Internet of Things

Search through over 120 million documents

New opportunities

Eva Kaili, Member of the European Parliament, Chair of STOA, the European Parliament’s Science and Technology Options Assessment body talks about regilation, distributed ledgers, data ownership and portability.

A European Internet of Things

Eva Kaili, Member of the European Parliament, Chair of STOA, the European Parliament’s Science and Technology Options Assessment body talks about misinformation, misperception, our right to choose and jobs as well as education and 5G networks.

Future challenges

Eva Kaili, Member of the European Parliament, Chair of STOA, the European Parliament’s Science and Technology Options Assessment body talks about education systems, the digital single market, policy makers and the need for an Ai ethics code.

The basics

Rob van Kranenburg, Founder of IoT Council, Ecosystem Manager for EU projects TagitSmart and Next Generation Internet tals about pervasive computing, cloud, smart devices, digital twins, processing and storage power.

Life in the IoT

Rob van Kranenburg, Founder of IoT Council, Ecosystem Manager for EU projects TagitSmart and Next Generation Internet tals about privacies (yes that’s plural!), transition, China, Estonia, ambient intelligence, pervasive computing and Kevin Ashton.

The road ahead

Rob van Kranenburg, Founder of IoT Council, Ecosystem Manager for EU projects TagitSmart and Next Generation Internet talks about the splinternet, protocols, security, governance, basic income, Robert Reich and millenials.


Ask a researcher on
The Internet of Things

Benefits of the Internet of Things

Dr. Kaili mentioned the fact that the Internet of Things will make our lives easier in her interview “New Opportunities”. When I think of the IoT, smart speakers like Amazon’s Alexa and Google Home likely come to mind. Their voice command capabilities allow us to do things like set timers while we are cooking, listen to music, and get the day’s weather report, all without having to press any buttons or use our hands. Can you please give us a few more examples of how people can benefit from having all their devices connected to the IoT?

Reply provided from a researcher of Columbia University in the City of New York

Here are a few examples. First and foremost, the home. Smart, connected appliances are what people think of when they hear IoT. They imagine an intelligent house, programmed to save energy and make your life a more convenient one. Next, IoT will have a drastic effect on waste management. With the seamless integration of light, heat and air conditioning that reacts to you, a lot of money could be saved on those bills. Thirdly, we have our daily commute. Intelligent traffic detection will allow our device to direct us to the shortest route to work/ home. For personal health, the possibilities are even more extensive. With the long list of wearables already in circulation, we can track even more: sleeping patterns, nutritional balance, GP visits and check-up schedules, exercise programs.

The Internet of Things and the Environment

In her discussion on “New Opportunities”, Dr. Kaili talks about the fact that the Internet of Things will be the biggest, most sophisticated piece of equipment that we have deployed across the planet. That means that we have got to think about the potential limitations on it due to power consumption and the use of rare earth elements. With so many devices connected to the IoT, what do you think the energy requirements will be like? Will this demand for energy not put a strain on our environment?

Reply provided from a researcher of University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering

IoT devices are expected to be low-power devices, but the number of IoT devices that Cisco predicts will be 50 billion by 2020, is an order of magnitude larger than the number of smartphones and tablets in use today. If the energy consumed by these devices and the networks and data centers to which they are connected is considered, energy consumption by IoT will impactfully increase the rate of energy consumption growth. Energy is one of three main determinants of the long-term sustainability of the Internet of Things (the other two being privacy and cyber security).

Internet of Things and IP Addressing

In one of the videos Rob van Kranenburg discusses the road ahead of us and mentions the challenge of addressing. Do you have any comment on how internet addressing might change in the future in order to accommodate the billions of new devices that will get connected to the IoT in the years to come?

Reply provided from a researcher of University of Southampton, Optoelectronics Research Centre

While IPv4 will continue to be used as legacy protocol for a while, the future is with IPv6. It allows for greater visibility in any planning for scalable development of Internet services and usage. Companies and network operators need to make the important move to ensure that their infrastructure is IPv6 ready, and they need to do so today.

Research on IoT and the Cloud in the European Union

To your knowledge, have there been any studies investigating the conditions enabling the European industry to actively participate in the development of the emerging IoT and Cloud combined ecosystems? I am looking for reports that might set out recommendations to meet Europe’s IoT-related research and innovation challenges.

Reply provided from a researcher of Max Planck Institut fur Informatik

The European Commission has a web page that summarizes Reports and Studies in various fields. One such field is precisely the Internet of Things. Here is where you will find this list: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/reports-and-studies/76003/74243?page=1 They have another one for Cloud Computing: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/reports-and-studies/75981/3494?page=3

The Internet of Things and Military Applications

Contemporary military operations are becoming increasingly complex, multifaceted, and unpredictable. Commanders need to be able to anticipate, assess, and take action in increasingly pressurized environments and restricted timeframes. It seems that the IoT can potentially provide a solution to this problem. Can you think of any areas of possible IoT military applications?

Reply provided from a researcher of Alma Mater Studiorum Universita di Bologna, Micrel Lab.

By integrating systems of sensors, actuators, and control systems into existing military infrastructures, the military can become more efficient and effective. The application areas could be: Logistics, Smart Bases, and Data Warfare. The connected sensors and digital analytics that IoT technology offers can be used to track supplies and equipment from their source to where they are needed on the battlefield. Automated security screening, for example, increases safety while decreasing manpower. By collecting data from a wide range of military platforms the military can increase the effectiveness of their intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance systems.

What does it mean, for a programming language, to be secure?

Why do developers say that Java is secure? What programming languages are truly "secure"? Are there programming language that are not secure ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

The following definition is kind of specific to this answer: A language is secure if it guarantees that uses of its semantics cannot be subverted/exploited by untrusted code in the language. For example, in a secure language, you’re guaranteed that if you install Library A, written by some random people, and use it, that library cannot do certain things in your program.

What Is Numa Memory Architecture?

How can a very ordered thing like computer memory ’Non-Uniform’

Reply provided from a researcher of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Information and Communication Technologies

NUMA stands for Non-Uniform memory access and is a special type of shared memory architecture where access times to different memory locations by a processor may vary as may also access times to the same memory location by different processors. NUMA attempts to address this problem by providing separate memory for each processor, avoiding the performance hit when several processors attempt to address the same memory.

What Is Simd?

Single instruction, multiple data

Reply provided from a researcher of Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski

A class belonging to Flynn’s taxonomy of parallel architectures, it stands for single instruction multiple data. In this architecture, different processing elements all execute the same instruction in a given clock cycle, with the respective data (e.g., in registers) being independent of each other. It is a quite old architecture (the first use of SIMD instructions was completed in 1966) but it is still in use today on almost all CPUs and a typical usage is in graphic transformation where all pixels of an image must undergo the same operation (e.g. change the saturation of an image to transform it in black on white)

Bellman Ford algorithm

What is the Bellman Ford algorithm for finding single source shortest paths?

Reply provided from a researcher of Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski

The Bellman-Ford algorithm finds single source shortest paths by repeatedly relaxing distances until there are no more distances to relax. Relaxing distances is done by checking if an intermediate point provides a better path than the currently chosen path. After a number of iterations that is slightly less than the node count, we can check if the solution is optimal. If not, there is a cycle of negative edges that will provide better paths infinitely long.

What is a recursive algorithm?

I saw recursion used in many programming examples, but it is not clear to me what it is

Reply provided from a researcher of Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski

Recursive algorithm is a method of solving a complicated problem by breaking a problem down into smaller and smaller sub-problems until you get the problem small enough that it can be solved easily. Usually, it involves a function calling itself with smaller or simpler input values, and which obtains the result for the current input by applying simple operations to the returned value for the smaller or simpler input. More generally if a problem can be solved utilizing solutions to smaller versions of the same problem, and the smaller versions reduce to easily solvable cases, then one can use a recursive algorithm to solve that problem.

Social and New Media

Search through over 120 million documents

A new information age

Rasmus Kleis Nielsen, Director of Research at the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism talks about digital media and the news, algorithmic serendipity, echo chambers and filter bubbles.

Life in a social world

Rasmus Kleis Nielsen, Director of Research at the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism talks about privacy, Cambridge Analytica, Facebook, ad targeting and political campaigns.

The challenges

Rasmus Kleis Nielsen, Director of Research at the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism talks about payed and second rank news, platforms and the crucial importance of media literacy.

The Infosphere

Luciano Floridi, Professor of Philosophy and Ethics of Information and Director of the Digital Ethics Lab, at the Oxford Internet Institute, talks about social media, infospheres, space, Newton, Einstein and the biosphere.

Digital Democracy

Luciano Floridi, Professor of Philosophy and Ethics of Information and Director of the Digital Ethics Lab, at the Oxford Internet Institute, talks about politics, digital tech, social media, platforms and information pollution.

The way ahead

Luciano Floridi, Professor of Philosophy and Ethics of Information and Director of the Digital Ethics Lab, at the Oxford Internet Institute talks about onlife, digital governance, diversity, rules, frameworks and sovranational entities as EU, Nato and the WEF.


Ask a researcher on
Social and New Media

Articles

Inside the Echo Chamber

Quattrociocchi, Walter Scientific American . 2017 mendeley

Google's Ideological Echo Chamber

Damore, James Document Cloud . 2017 mendeley

Understanding Social Media Logic

Vv.Aa. Media and Communication . 2013 mendeley

Social media for large studies of behavior

Vv.Aa. Science . 2014 mendeley

The next stage of U.S. communications policy: The emerging embedded infosphere

Taylor, Richard D. Telecommunications Policy . 2017 mendeley

Information Ethics: On the Philosophical Foundations of Computer Ethics

Floridi, Luciano Ethics and Information Technology . 1999 mendeley

Floridi and Spinoza on global information ethics

Hongladarom, Soraj Ethics and Information Technology . 2008 mendeley

Transparency, open data and trust in government: shaping the infosphere

O'Hara, Kieron WebSci '12 Proceedings of the 4th Annual ACM Web Science Conference . 2012 mendeley

The Information Society and Its Philosophy: Introduction to the Special Issue on “The Philosophy of Information, Its Nature, and Future Developments”

Floridi, Luciano The Information Society . 2009 mendeley

The tragedy of the digital commons

Vv.Aa. Ethics and Information Technology . 2004 mendeley

Echo Chamber? What Echo Chamber? Reviewing the Evidence

Bruns, Axel Future of Journalism . 2017 mendeley

The spreading of misinformation online

Vv.Aa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . 2016 mendeley

Inside the Echo Chamber

Quattrociocchi, Walter Scientific American . 2017 mendeley

The echo chamber is overstated: the moderating effect of political interest and diverse media

Vv.Aa. Information Communication and Society . 2018 mendeley

Breaking the filter bubble: democracy and design

Vv.Aa. Ethics and Information Technology . 2015 mendeley

The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding from You

Pariser, Eli ZNet . 2011 mendeley

Homophily, echo chambers, & selective exposure in social networks: What should civic educators do?

Passe, Jeff; Drake, Corey; Mayger, Linda The Journal of Social Studies Research . July 2018 sciencedirect

Social media and political partisanship – A subaltern public sphere’s role in democracy

Lee, Paul S.N.; So, Clement Y.K.; Lee, Francis; Leung, Louis; Chan, Michael Telematics and Informatics . October 2018 sciencedirect

The Cost of News in the Media

Mr. Nielsen discussed some of the challenges of new media. In my research I have determined that people are drawn to subscribe to news for three reasons: a publication excels at coverage of key topics, friends and family subscribe to the publication, and to a lesser degree, in response to discount promotions on subscription prices. My question is, will we ever see a situation where people get second-rate news if it is available for free online and first-rate news if it is paid?

Reply provided from a researcher of University of California, Los Angeles

The most common approach to the business of online news has been to offer it as free at the point of consumption but supported by advertising. In the mid-1990s, as newspapers went online, they found very limited numbers of users willing to pay for news but saw considerable year-on-year growth in the number of users seeking out free news online. Providing more free content when there is more demand can help balance the trade-off between subscription and advertising revenues.

Research Topic on New Media and Digital Culture

I am a student in the New Media programme of the University of Amsterdam. Do you have any interesting suggestions for a Master's thesis topic within the Digital Culture field? I expect I will be conducting innovative research projects and critically engaging in new media practices, but I have not decided on a thesis topic yet and need some help.

Reply provided from a researcher of Columbia University in the City of New York, Department of Electrical Engineering

Here are some suggestions for interesting topics: Do high school students learn more if they use video games in the classroom? How has the concept of digital skills and competencies changed in school? How does the use of social media before, during and after a trip affect our role as tourists? What role does technology play in the music communities? What is the relationship between surveillance and privacy? Can algorithms help us find love?

Why is CAPTCHA now just a box to click?

How a computer cannot do such a simple task? It is just a click of the mouse on a check box, I know this can be also done by code. Hat I the difference, how the Captcha recognize it ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski

Captcha is a complex system, developed over many year, with billions of check and interactions with users. There is a very long list of check that the system does without any interaction with you. This is what it checks before classifying you as suspicious (and giving image classification tasks) or non-suspicious (and only providing the checkbox): our browsing history, usually requiring at least 8 days of realistic interaction with the web. Installed plug-ins of the browser (the hacker will attempt to use the simplest setup possible and use a bare bones browser, a real user might have ad-block, Adobe Reader, etc. installed). Whether the browser actually is what it claims to be (different browsers display pages slighly differently, so the captcha will ask your browser to draw something special and will then analyze the results). Whether your browser is not outdated. In some cases. Your screen resolution. The execution time and time zone. How many clicks/keyboard presses/touches were in the recaptcha area. The movements of the mouse to reach the checkbox

Big Data and Analytics

Search through over 120 million documents

Big Data and AI

Max Welling, Research chair in Machine Learning at the University of Amsterdam and VP technologies Qualcomm Netherlands, talks about about machine learning, big data, artificial intelligence, historical data, deep learning and algorithms.

Living with AI

Max Welling, Research chair in Machine Learning at the University of Amsterdam and VP technologies Qualcomm Netherlands, talks about reschooling, automation, employment, jobs, cloud computing, edge computing, servers, connection, delay, energy, battery, internet of things.

The challenges

Max Welling, Research chair in Machine Learning at the University of Amsterdam and VP technologies Qualcomm Netherlands, talks about Gdpr, augmented reality, wearables, interactive chatbots and the best skills to learn for a student.

The age of data

Dino Pedreschi, Professor of Computer Science at the University of Pisa and co-lead of KDD Lab - Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining Laboratory, talks about big data, machine learning and intelligent systems.

Data for good

Dino Pedreschi, Professor of Computer Science at the University of Pisa and co-lead of KDD Lab - Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining Laboratory, talks about forecasting, crisis response, customization and personal data.

The road ahead

Dino Pedreschi, Professor of Computer Science at the University of Pisa and co-lead of KDD Lab - Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining Laboratory, talks about data commons, network effects, Gdpr and our right to explanation.


Ask a researcher on
Big Data and Analytics

Articles

The harsh rule of the goals: Data-driven performance indicators for football teams

Vv.Aa. Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics, DSAA 2015 . 2015 mendeley

A classification for community discovery methods in complex networks

Vv.Aa. Statistical Analysis and Data Mining . 2011 mendeley

EU GDPR Information Portal

European Commission GDPR Portal . 2018 mendeley

A survey of clustering algorithms for big data: Taxonomy and empirical analysis

Vv.Aa. IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing . 2014 mendeley

Semi-supervised Calssification with Graph-concoluational Neural Networks

Vv.Aa. Icml 2017 . 2017 mendeley

Classifying multi-destination trips in Austria with big data

Önder, Irem Tourism Management Perspectives . 2017 mendeley

How well do we know each other? : Detecting tie strength in multidimensional social networks

Vv.Aa. Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining, ASONAM 2012 . 2012 mendeley

Returners and explorers dichotomy in human mobility

Vv.Aa. Nature Communications . 2015 mendeley

EU General Data Protection Regulation: Changes and implications for personal data collecting companies

Vv.Aa. Computer Law and Security Review . 2018 mendeley

Big Data technologies: A survey

Oussous, Ahmed; Benjelloun, Fatima-Zahra; Ait Lahcen, Ayoub; Belfkih, Samir Journal of King Saud University - Computer and Information Sciences . October 2018 sciencedirect

Big data: More than big data sets

Cobb, Adrienne N.; Benjamin, Andrew J.; Huang, Erich S.; Kuo, Paul C. Surgery . October 2018 sciencedirect

Big Data for Internet of Things: A Survey

Ge, Mouzhi; Bangui, Hind; Buhnova, Barbora Future Generation Computer Systems . October 2018 sciencedirect

Social networking big data: Opportunities, solutions, and challenges

Peng, Sancheng; Yu, Shui; Mueller, Peter Future Generation Computer Systems . September 2018 sciencedirect

Big Data and the Environment

In the interview “The Road Ahead” Dr. Pedreschi talked about Big Data and the environment. I am an environmental scientist and was wondering, do you believe we will be able to start using data and information in a manner that would allow us to preserve and improve the environment?

Reply provided from a researcher of University of Southern California

Absolutely--consider telecommuting. Whether you currently encourage your teams to work from home or you'd like to develop a program that makes working from home possible, your efforts can not only boost morale and retention, but they can help mitigate environmental pollution and help your organization achieve its sustainability goals. And the impact can be significant. Here is a 2015 study that demonstrates the positive impact telecommuting can have on the environment: https://www.cta.tech/CTA/media/policyImages/Telecommuting-e-Commerce-Study.pdf

The Fast Evolution of Big Data

This question is in connected with Dr. Pedreschi’s discussion of Big Data. Our technical environment has changed over the years. We are no longer limited like we were before on the amounts of data we can manage. With the concept of big data, we can use larger samples when doing studies and take into account more subsets. ·Clearly many services may be disrupted by the fast evolution of Big Data and AI. Is that normal and something to be expected or is it a bad thing we should be wary of?

Reply provided from a researcher of University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Computer Science

It is normal. Executives already see a direct correlation between AI initiatives and big data capabilities. For the first time, huge corporations report that they have direct access to meaningful sources and volumes of data, which could feed AI algorithms to understand behaviors and detect patterns. These organizations combine big data, computing power and AI algorithms to produce an array of business benefits form real-time consumer credit approval to new product offerings.

Deep Neural Networks

Thank you for the discussion on Deep Learning. Dr. Welling mentioned the term ‘Deep Neural Network’. What does it stand for and how are they different than regular Neural Networks? My guess is that the difference between the two will stem mainly from two areas: the level of complexity and the ways in which mathematical modeling is used to process data. Thank you in advance.

Reply provided from a researcher of Lancaster University, School of Computing and Communications

A deep neural network is a neural network with a certain level of complexity, a neural network with more than two layers. Deep neural networks use sophisticated mathematical modeling to process data in complex ways. Deep learning represents a specific form of machine learning where technologies using aspects of artificial intelligence seek to classify and order information in ways that go beyond simple input/output protocols.

Can we use big data to reduce traffic jams?

Every day I go to work and every day there are queues, jams and delays. With everyone owning a GPS device, and cars becoming connected, can we hope in a reduction of traffic in the future? Is there someone who has already started to study the problem?

Reply provided from a researcher of Universite d'Orleans, PRISME Laboratory

Analytics based on Big Data allow you to quickly evaluate: the top origins and destinations of drivers that use congested routes, levels of congestion and viability of alternative routes, the times of day, types of day, and times of year that have the most and least congestion, and the purpose of the trips that generate congestion. With the right algorithmic processing techniques, the anonymous, archival and messy data from these devices can be turned into useful information that unlocks great value for transportation engineers and planners.

Big Data Adoption in Health Care

The application of big data analytics in healthcare will likely have a lot of positive and also life-saving outcomes. I would imagine applied to healthcare, Big Data will use specific health data of a population (or of a particular individual) and potentially help to prevent epidemics, cure disease, cut down costs, etc. What are some of the most significant challenges to big data's adoption in the field of healthcare?

Reply provided from a researcher of Lulea tekniska Universitet

Big data analytics has the potential for positive impact and global implications; however, it must overcome some legitimate obstacles. The top challenges to big data adoption in healthcare include issues of data structure, security, data standardization, storage and transfers, and managerial skills such as data governance. The top opportunities include quality improvement, population management and health, early detection of disease, data quality, structure, and accessibility, improved decision making, and cost reduction.

Regulation of AI Development

There has been a heated discussion on whether AI should be strongly regulated. Elon Musk, Bill Gates, Stephen Hawking, Nick Bostrom, and Vernor Vinge all say 'yes'. Andrew Ng, Sebastian Thrun, Yann LeCun, Mark Zuckerberg, and Steven Pinker all say 'no'. What is your opinion on the subject?

Reply provided from a researcher of Stanford University

We need a Cyber Age Commission. The most important service that the Cyber Age Commission could provide, through public hearings, would be to help launch and nurture a nationwide public dialogue about what course the nation’s people favor, or can come to favor. If those who hold that the greatest challenges from AI are in the economic and social realm are correct, many hearts and minds will have to be changed before the nation can adopt the policy measures and cultural changes that will be needed to negotiate the coming transformation into an AI-rich world.

Self-Driving Cars and Accidents

Last year, Tesla reported its Autopilot’s first fatality, when its sensors did not detect the white side of a tractor trailer against a brightly lit sky. People debate on whether Tesla had to be held responsible for this. And this broader debate is only going to get more intense, going forward. If AI kills a person, who do you believe should be held responsible?

Reply provided from a researcher of University of Birmingham, Natural Computation Group

Who or what would be punished for an offense for which an AI system was directly liable, and what form would this punishment take? For the moment, there are no answers to these questions. One thing is for sure: in the coming years, there is likely to be some fun to be had with all this by the lawyers—or the AI systems that replace them.

What is the best book in neural networks ?

I know there are many books on the issue and I’d like to start study it using the best sources, which books are available today ?

Reply provided from a researcher of King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering Division

Neural networks where described in the beginning of the 90s for the first time, so it is not a new topic. There are plenty of books on the topic, some more technical other more on the theory. I suggest the following ones: An Introduction To Neural Networks, James A Anderson.
Neural Networks - A Comprehensive Foundation by Simon S. Haykin.
Make Your Own Neural Network by Tariq Rashidzbr
Deep Learning (Adaptive Computation and Machine Learning) by I. Goodfellow and Y. Bengio

What are the differences between a recurrent neural networks and a convolutional neural networks?

I am interested in creating some AI engine that will help me managing data from the various sensors I have in my assembly line. Some events are clear and trigger alarms (like: temperature too high, or pressure too low). But how the various parameters affect the quality of the output of the line it is not clear. So I imagine using a software that can find hidden dependencies between work conditions and output quality.

Reply provided from a researcher of Imperial College London, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

The basic difference of convolutional networks (CN) and recurrent neural networks (RNN) is that CN (like most other machine learning algorithm) take a fixed size input and generate fixed-size outputs. RNN, on the other hand, can handle arbitrary input/output lengths, but would typically require much more data compared to conv-nets because it is a more complex model. The first kind of network work best with analysis like the one you need, while the second one handle much complicate issues like language translation where both input and output have no fixed length and no fixed range values. CN can say if the current conditions will generate good or bad quality products only if the network is properly designed and sufficiently trained. But the specific network you need strongly depends of inputs your system can provide and it is something only a good analyst can tell you.

What is big data and what are used for ?

I keep hearing about these Big Data, that they are changing the world we are living and are becoming more and more important in our daily life. But what are they, first of all ?

Reply provided from a researcher of University of California, Berkeley

Big data is large amount of data, usually huge volumes of poorly structured data. It is a term used to describe data that is huge in amount and which keeps growing with time, in some cases very rapidly. Big Data consists of structured, unstructured and semi-structured data. This data can be used to track and mine information for analysis or research purpose. One common issue is related with the fact that data are incoming continuously to the storage system and that the new data are usually more relevant than the old ones. Imagine a traffic tracking system, like those in your navigation device. It is something that updates continuously with information coming from many possible sources like: GPS navigation system, noise detector, traffic cameras, feedback from drivers and many other different feeds. The system must adapt rapidly in some event happens (an accident, a malfunctioning lamp, and so on). The better the system is able to analyses data, the better it can suggest faster tracks to your navigation device, helping you avoiding queues and allowing to reach your destination in time.

What is noise in Big data ?

I heard that Big data always contains a lot of noise and one of the issue is dealing with this noise. Why there is noise in the data ? How do one prevent this to happens ?

Reply provided from a researcher of University of California, Berkeley, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

The term “noise” refer to the fact that data are usually generated by some automatic system that can contains errors or false information. Think about a thermometer placed on a pole in the middle of the street. How accurate it can be ? What might happens over time ? It should be recalibrated from time to time, so you have to handle possible errors in the readings of it. As the volume of data is increasing, it becomes difficult to get any outcome from a huge lump of data. The term described as “to find the signal in the noise” states that you need to find some kind of way to find value from your data. The larger the volume of data more complex it gets to analyze and extract some value. You need to keep going back to analyze it again thinking something is left. This increases the complexity of data analysis and getting the value. Analytics essentially is looking at a subset of data to find a pattern and test that hypotheses on another data-set to see if you can find the same/similar pattern. So, essentially its and trail and error approach until you find the pattern that seems to be everywhere. With this approach on such huge amounts of data,  it is possible to get False positives. So, the good practice is to test a hypotheses rigorously and exhaustively to avoid making the wrong conclusions.

What is difference between Data Science and Big Data ?

Please explain me how the two terms are related.

Reply provided from a researcher of Stanford University, Department of Biomedical Data Science

Data Science is a field that encompasses related to data cleansing, preparation, and analysis. Data science is an umbrella term in which many scientific methods apply. For example mathematics, statistics, and many other tools scientists apply to data sets. Scientist applies the tools to extract knowledge from data. Big data is usually a huge collection of complex data sets (billions of data or even more) that can’t be analyzed in a traditional system because of its size and its evolution over time. Data science is the field of knowledge that study how to manage and structure data, so it is related to big data because the Data scientists are the experts who study the way to handle data and to make them useful. Consider that 80% of the data getting generated today is unstructured and cannot be handled by our traditional technologies. So data scientists are very important in managing these data.

How to get started with Big Data Analysis ?

I've been using conventional RDBMS systems for data warehousing for a long time. Now I feel the need to get my hands on Big Data Analysis. I'd like to know how to get started with Big Data crunching.

Reply provided from a researcher of University of Southern California

RDBMS deals mainly with Tables and indexes and the issues comes from things like: Updates performances and transactions management. Big data is mainly how data are denormalized, structured and reorganized to offer best performance. SQL languange is not relevant anymore, because you basically select data from single tables, without any kind of join. You could also consider some no-SQL database, especially if you need analytical decisions.

Dangers of machine learning

What are the dangers of using machine learning without any comprehension of it ? Should we expect scenarios like those depicted in the movies in the next future ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bioinformatics and Mathematical Modelling Department

Hollywood’s examination of artificial intelligence over the last several decades makes it clear that humanity hates the idea of technology that can replace us, but is moved by the idea of another intelligence that may be capable of the same emotions that make us distinctly human.

When a software is to be considered intelligent ?

What level of complexity must a program reach so that we can say that it is an artificial Intelligence ? There are complex software, like the one that manage the air traffic, that are not considered intelligent while other, much more simple, are.

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

True AI is still a long way off. In non-technological terms we should understand true AI is not only the act of feeding all possible information into a database but the ability of the computer to actually learn and deduce from the information it contains. In short and very simplistic terms true AI requires: information, analysis, learning capabilities, deductive reasoning. The air traffic control system does not have many of these functionalities.

Who is leading in AI research among big players ?

Which companies are leading in the AI field ? Some names like Google or Ibm are immediately recognizable, but where can I find a list of the other major players ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

To identify which private companies are set to make the most of it, research firm CB Insights recently released its 2018 “A.I. 100,” a list of the most promising A.I. startups globally (http://fortune.com/2018/01/08/artificial-intelligence-ai-companies-invest-startups/). They were chosen, from a pool of over 1,000 candidates, based on factors like investor quality and momentum. China’s Bytedance leads in funding with $3.1 billion, but 76 of the 100 startups are U.S.-based.

Which programming language should use for AI ?

There are many platform and tools out there to start playing with AI, but it is not clear to me which programming language should I master that is strictly related with AI.

Reply provided from a researcher of IICT-BAS

You’ll want a language with many good machine learning and deep learning libraries, of course. It should also feature good runtime performance, good tools support, a large community of programmers, and a healthy ecosystem of supporting packages. That still leaves plenty of good options. I would say Python, C++, Java, LISP, and Prolog are your best options at the moment.

Is there a road map to study AI, machine learning, and deep machine learning ?

I want to become a good AI software developer, but there is no clear path of studies to reach a good comprehension of AI. Can you suggest some way to start ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

Here is my suggestion for a roadmap to studying Machine Learning: Learn basic Python, Learn basic data structures using Python, Learn some cool Python packages (Numpy, Pandas, Matplotlib, Scikit), Do basic Linear Algebra, Statistics and Probability with Python, Start with Machine Learning, Start implementing Machine Learning algorithms, Read a lot.

Are big data and AI basically the same thing ?

What is the difference between the two. Is not AI basically a the only real way to manage big data ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

The two subjects are related, but neither is really a part of the other. To use a metaphor, Big Data is like wooden boards, Artificial Intelligence is like building a house. AI existed long before Big Data. Big Data is a raw material - the data source - that can go into AI. It is not required but it does make it possible to create for sophisticated Machine Learning algorithms, for example. A perfectly good AI can be built without Big Data.

QI and Artificial intelligence

Is there a QI index for Artificial intelligence ? Does it make sense to compare human intelligence with artificial ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

This is a very controversial topic with lots of different opinions from a number of experts. Human intelligence revolves around adapting to the environment using a combination of several cognitive processes. The field of Artificial intelligence focuses on designing machines that can mimic human behavior. At the moment, the mere ability to mimic human behavior is considered as Artificial Intelligence.

Chess and rocket science

Why a computer playing chess is considered intelligent, while a computer making complex calculations (like rocket trajectory to reach a moon of Saturn) is not ?

Reply provided from a researcher of ULSIT

Defining intelligence is notoriously difficult and psychologists now think that there are lots of different aspects to it including social, logical, creative, emotional and practical intelligence. One of the most famous intelligence tests was developed by Alan Turing in the 1950s. Turing said that if a computer could fool a person into believing that it was human, then it should be classed as intelligent. So far, no computer has passed the Turing Test.

Do I still have a future as software developer ?

Will artificial intelligence soon start replacing coders ? Is the software developer a job that will soon disappear ? Should I start to learn something different ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Google’s AutoML system recently produced a series of machine-learning codes with higher rates of efficiency than those made by the researchers themselves. AutoML was developed as a solution to the lack of top-notch talent in AI programming. The system runs thousands of simulations to determine which areas of the code can be improved, makes the changes, and continues the process ad infinitum, or until its goal is reached.

Amazon using robots

I saw that Amazon is using robots to deliver goods to people. Are this robots intelligent or they just use mechanical instructions ? If these robots can find the products for the customers and send it to them, why this solution is not used in all other factory for all kind of products ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

Amazon uses its robots to carry stock around the expansive warehouse floors and group together all the individual items needed for a specific order. This is done to reduce the amount of interaction humans have with the products. Despite this, Amazon Robotics chief technologist Tye Brady insists the robots are simply enhancing human efficiencies, and not reducing the number of warehouse jobs. The firm claims the robots do not have the 'common sense' or 'dexterity' needed for the job.

I see a lot of applications of AI around, is there anything in medical diagnostics?

In a couple of year I expect to see patients talking more with machines that with doctors, at least for the most common health problems. But is this the case ? Or there is something that prevent AI to be used in medical diagnostics ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski

The most popular uses of AI in medical diagnostics at the moment include: chatbots, oncology, pathology, and rare diseases. Researchers are using deep learning to train algorithms to recognize cancerous tissue at a level comparable to trained physicians. Machine vision and other machine learning technologies can enhance the efforts traditionally left only to pathologists with microscopes. Patient photos are analyzed using facial analysis and deep learning to detect phenotypes that correlate with rare genetic diseases. Probably you’ll not talk with the machines in the future, but doctor will be helped by machines in finding the correct diagnosis for patients.

I am a beginner in AI, what tool should I focus to learn ?

I am learning TensorFlow and PyTorch. Is there any other interesting tool ? How do I select the best tools available ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

I would recommend taking a good free online course in Artificial Intelligence. Some courses are aimed at people who want to dive straight into coding their own artificial neural networks, and understandably assume a certain level of technical ability. Others are useful for those who want to learn how this technology can be applied by anyone, regardless of prior technical expertise, to solving real-word problems. Here you can find the list: https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2018/04/16/the-6-best-free-online-artificial-intelligence-courses-for-2018/#39e3da2b59d7

Isn't AI basically and enormous statistical calculation ?

When trying to identify an image, the AI machines, just compare this image with millions of images and return the one with most similarity, like for statistical calc.

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

Though this line of thinking is technically correct, reducing machine learning as a whole to nothing more than a subsidiary of statistics is quite a stretch. In fact, the comparison doesn’t make much sense. Statistics is the field of mathematics which deals with the understanding and interpretation of data. Machine learning is nothing more than a class of computational algorithms (hence its emergence from computer science).

How can we insure that AI machine do good decisions ?

How do I define good and bad decisions and how I teach a machine to distinguish ? And how we define what is good and what is bad ? How do we detect bad decisions and reduce them ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

AI could help us defeat biases in our decision-making. Biases generally exist when we only take our own considerations into account. If we were to recognize and act upon the wants, needs, and concerns of every group affected by a certain decision, we’d presumably avoid making a biased decision. AI could make a big difference when it comes to how society makes and justifies decisions.

What Deep Learning will never be able to learn?

Are there fields of knowledge (so exclude emotions) in which the machine will have big troubles in catching up with human intelligence?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

One thing that Deep Learning will have a hard time learning is how to use data from the past to predict events in the future with a large degree of confidence. While it may be able to provide extrapolations for smooth phenomena such as evolution of the temperature within a few days or claim that some football team is quite likely to win the Superbowl, those predictions can never be formulated with a high degree of confidence.

Are robots intelligent ?

What is the difference between a robots and artificial intelligence ? Are there dumb robots or a robot must be always considered an intelligent machine ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Information and Communication Technologies

Robotics is a branch of technology which deals with robots. Robots are programmable machines which are usually able to carry out a series of actions autonomously, or semi-autonomously. Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science. It involves developing computer programs to complete tasks which would otherwise require human intelligence. AI algorithms can tackle learning, perception, problem-solving, language-understanding and/or logical reasoning. Even when AI is used to control robots, the AI algorithms are only part of the larger robotic system, which also includes sensors, actuators and non-AI programming.

Is AI just a buzzword or there are actual uses in the real world ?

Many other buzzword disappeared without notice. Will we forget about AI in the near future or AI is here to stay ? In which fields AI have real application ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Biophysics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Bioinformatics and Mathematical Modelling

Typical problems to which AI methods are applied include: Optical character recognition, Handwriting recognition, Speech recognition, Face recognition, Artificial creativity, Computer vision, Virtual reality, and Image processing, Photo and Video manipulation, Diagnosis (artificial intelligence), Game theory and Strategic planning, Game artificial intelligence and Computer game bot, Natural language processing, Translation and Chatterbots, and Nonlinear control and Robotics.

Will AI end television and youtube ?

Now that AI can simulate any person saying anything (like the FakeApp app), will we be invaded with fake videos of famous persons saying and doing anything ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Biophysics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

In late 2017, a user on Reddit named Deepfakes started applying deep learning to fabricate fake videos of celebrities. That starts a new wave of fake videos online. DARPA, as part of the US military, is funding research in detecting fake videos. Actually, applying AI to create videos started way before Deepfakes. Face2Face and UW’s “synthesizing Obama (learning lip sync from audio)” create fake videos that are even harder to detect.

Where do I get database of information/pictures to train my AI algorithm ?

I would like to make some experiments by myself with AI engine and try to find out how to teach a machine and learn about how AI really works. But I need some good dataset to start my experiments.

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

Google. Offering off-the-peg AI services like image and speech recognition is a key part of Google’s pitch to customers as a cloud computing provider. The company is now taking its AI-easy approach one step further with Cloud AutoML, a new tool that will let users train their own custom machine learning algorithms from scratch, without having to write a single line of code.

What are Divide and Conquer algorithms?

I knew divide and conquer was invented by ancient Romans, I was really surprised to find it in computer terminology

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences, Department of Parallel Algorithms

Divide and Conquer algorithms are a paradigm for solving problems that involve several basic steps. First, we divide the problem into smaller pieces and work to solve each of them independently. Once we’ve solved all of the pieces, we take all of the resulting smaller solutions and combine them into a single integrated comprehensive solution. This process can be performed recursively; that is, each “sub problem” can itself be subdivided into even smaller parts if necessary. This recursive division of the problem is performed until each individual problem is small enough to become relatively trivial to solve.

Binary search

How does binary search work?

Reply provided from a researcher of Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, Department of Software Engineering

In binary search, we compare the key with the item in the middle position of the array.  If the key is less than the item searched then it must lie in the lower half of the array, if the key is greater than the item searched than it should be in upper half of the array. There are many tutorial online that explain well how it works, also by giving source codes of software that execute this kind of search

Big data and finance

What is the purpose of Big Data in the financial sector? What applications are there of big data in finance?

Reply provided from a researcher of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

The financial industry uses Big Data for a variety of reasons with the common end goals of deriving an economic benefit or competitive advantage from it, or enhancing efficiency. Examples include: profiling customers to help firms build up customer loyalty, marketing campaigns, and fraud prevention.

What does the term Big Data describe?

What is the difference between a wide collections of data and Big Data ? Aren’t big data just “many data” ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Big Data is a term associated with complex and large datasets. A relational database cannot handle big data, and that’s why special tools and methods are used to perform operations on a vast collection of data. Big data enables companies to understand their business better and helps them derive meaningful information from the unstructured and raw data collected on a regular basis. Big data also allows the companies to take better business decisions backed by data.

How is big data analysis helpful in increasing business revenue?

We are thinking to buy some analytical tool to keep track of our production lines and hopefully increase its efficiency. But costs seems very high and benefits uncertain.

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

Big data analysis has become very important for businesses. It helps businesses to differentiate themselves from others and increase revenue. Through predictive analytics, big data analytics provides businesses customized recommendations and suggestions. Also, big data analytics enables businesses to launch new products depending on customer needs and preferences.

How is NFS different from HDFS?

NFS (Network File system) and HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System) are two different valid solution to store big data. But what are the differences ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Metal Vapor Lasers Laboratory

There are a number of distributed file systems that work in their own way. NFS (Network File System) is one of the oldest and popular distributed file storage systems whereas HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System) is the recently used and popular one to handle big data. The major difference between the two is Replication/Fault Tolerance. HDFS was designed to survive failures. NFS does not have any fault tolerance built in. HDFS also support multiple replicas of files eliminating the common bottleneck of many clients accessing a single file. Since files have multiple replicas, on different physical disks, reading performance scales better than NFS.

How do we start using Big data in my company ?

If my company is just starting to consider using Big Data in our marketing research, what would be most useful to include?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences, Software Engineering Dep.

There is a trend to replace the term “Big Data” with “Small Data.” Most organizations are sitting on an enormous amount of untapped data and should look to their own networks for transactional data that can help build a more holistic view of their customers. The data are often siloed across disparate teams and have not been combined because the task was deemed too difficult, expensive or nebulous.

Will Big Data replace surveys?

Why do we need to ask to the persons what they think when we have all their data of their mobile phone and Google is able to tell in which shops you went or which plane will you catch ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski

No. Big Data analytics does a really good job telling us what our customers are doing, who they are doing it with, where they do it and when they do it. However, it does a pretty awful job telling us why our customers do what they do. Understanding the why behind the actions is critical to marketers since they are tasked with finding ways to change customer behavior. A marketer is focused on how to get people to buy more of their stuff and less of their competitors’ stuff. Without fully understanding the why behind their actions, marketers are left to guess which strategies and tactics will actually motivate customers.

What is the difference between data profiling and data mining?

I am confused on this difference and I cannot find any explanation online

Reply provided from a researcher of Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski

The difference between data profiling and data mining is: Data Profiling is aimed at individual attributes’ analysis. Information on different attributes like discrete values, value ranges and their data type, frequency, length are gotten from it. Data mining, on the other hand, targets unusual records detection, cluster analysis, sequence discovery and others.

What is the difference between "long" ("tall") and "wide" format data?

I am studying for an exam at university and I am facing this 'dilemma'.

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

In most data mining / data science applications there are many more records (rows) than features (columns) - such data is sometimes called "tall" (or "long") data. In some applications like genomics or bioinformatics you may have only a small number of records (patients), eg 100, but perhaps 20,000 observations for each patient. The standard methods that work for "tall" data will lead to overfitting the data, so special approaches are needed.

What is a Recommender System?

I know that when I go to Amazon I am tracked by their system so that they are able to suggest me products based on what I saw before. But how they works ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, Department of Optics and Spectroscopy

A recommender system is today widely deployed in multiple fields like movie recommendations, music preferences, social tags, research articles, search queries and so on. The recommender systems work as per collaborative and content-based filtering or by deploying a personality-based approach. This type of system works based on a person’s past behavior in order to build a model for the future.

How do Data Scientists use Statistics?

With all the data available today, statistics is becoming more and more relevant. How the statistical information are used in modern products and systems ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

Statistics helps Data Scientists to look into the data for patterns, hidden insights and convert Big Data into Big insights. It helps to get a better idea of what the customers are expecting. Data Scientists can learn about the consumer behavior, interest, engagement, retention and finally conversion all through the power of insightful statistics. It helps them to build powerful data models in order to validate certain inferences and predictions.

What is logistic regression?

Please explain this topic

Reply provided from a researcher of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies

It is a statistical technique or a model in order to analyze a dataset and predict the binary outcome. The outcome has to be a binary outcome that is either zero or one or a yes or no. Random Forest is an important technique which is used to do classification, regression and other tasks on data.

About data cleansing

If you clean the data, aren’t you altering them ? Why data cleansing is important in data analysis?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

Data cleansing is the process of detecting corrupt or inaccurate records from a database by identifying incomplete, incorrect, inaccurate or irrelevant parts of the data and then replacing, modifying, or deleting them. With data coming in from multiple sources it is important to ensure that data is good enough for analysis. This is where data cleansing becomes extremely vital. Data cleansing extensively deals with the process of detecting and correcting of data records, ensuring that data is complete and accurate and the components of data that are irrelevant are deleted or modified as per the needs. This process can be deployed in concurrence with data wrangling or batch processing.

How is Data modeling different from Database design?

What is the difference ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

Data Modeling: It can be considered as the first step towards the design of a database. Data modeling creates a conceptual model based on the relationship between various data models. The process involves moving from the conceptual stage to the logical model to the physical schema. It involves the systematic method of applying the data modeling techniques. Database Design: This is the process of designing the database. The database design creates an output which is a detailed data model of the database. Strictly speaking database design includes the detailed logical model of a database but it can also include physical design choices and storage parameters.

What is the purpose of cluster analysis in Data Warehousing?

I used database in the past and now I am approaching Data Warehousing, but I have problems in moving from my Entity relationship approach to this new way to organize data

Reply provided from a researcher of Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski

Cluster analysis is used to define the object without giving the class label. It analyzes all the data that is present in the data warehouse and compare the cluster with the cluster that is already running. It performs the task of assigning some set of objects into the groups also known as clusters. It is used to perform the data mining job using the technique like statistical data analysis.

What is Apache Hadoop?

I know Apache is used in Internet server to provide pages to the users. Is Hadoop related to that ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

It is not related, it is a different concept. Hadoop emerged as a solution to the “Big Data” problems. It is a part of the Apache project sponsored by the Apache Software Foundation. It is an open source software framework for distributed storage and distributed processing of large data sets. Open source means it is freely available and even we can change its source code as per our requirements. Apache Hadoop makes it possible to run applications on the system with thousands of commodity hardware nodes. It’s distributed file system has the provision of rapid data transfer rates among nodes.

IT operational data and Big Data Management

Many use cases around Big Data Management apply to customer, product, and vendor data. What about providing insight into IT operational data?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

Big Data Management is used today across many complex use cases for Big Data, in any industry. Whether the data domain is around customers, products, etc or the data sources are around social media, sensors, weblogs, relational data, or others, Informatica Big Data Management can help turn raw data into trusted data assets quickly and flexibly.

How is Hadoop different from other parallel computing systems?

I read that Hadoop is playing a big role in parallel computing because of its different approach.

Reply provided from a researcher of Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski

Hadoop is a distributed file system, which lets you store and handle massive amount of data on a cloud of machines, handling data redundancy. The primary benefit is that since data is stored in several nodes, it is better to process it in distributed manner. Each node can process the data stored on it instead of spending time in moving it over the network.

What is Data Science?

And what is the work of a data scientist

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Biophysics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

This question is quite vast, I will try to give you a very brief explanation. Data Science involves using automated methods to analyze massive amounts of data and to extract knowledge from them. By combining aspects of statistics, computer science, applied mathematics, and visualization, data science can turn the vast amounts of data the digital age generates into new insights and new knowledge. A data scientist is someone who makes value out of data. Such a person proactively fetches information from various sources and analyzes it for better understanding about how the business performs, and to build AI tools that automate certain processes within the company. Data scientist duties typically include creating various machine learning-based tools or processes within the company, such as recommendation engines or automated lead scoring systems. People within this role should also be able to perform statistical analysis.

What does the term Normal Distribution describe?

I learnt that if you throw two dices a sufficient number of time scoring the results, you get a normal distribution. But what is it ?

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Information and IICT Bulgarian Acadmey of Sciences

Data is usually distributed in different ways with a bias to the left or to the right or it can all be jumbled up. However, there are chances that data is distributed around a central value without any bias to the left or right and reaches normal distribution in the form of a bell-shaped curve. The normal distribution, also known as the Gaussian distribution, is a probability distribution that is symmetric about the mean, showing that data near the mean are more frequent in occurrence than data far from the mean.

What is Machine Learning?

What is it ? Please explain

Reply provided from a researcher of Institute of Electronics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Machine Learning explores the study and construction of algorithms that can learn from and make predictions on data. Closely related to computational statistics. Used to devise complex models and algorithms that lend themselves to a prediction which in commercial use is known as predictive analytics. Machine learning takes the approach of observing a system in practice and emulating its behavior with mathematics. One of the design aspects in designing machine learning solutions is where to put the mathematical function. Obtaining complex behavior in the resulting system can require some imagination in the design process. There are different approaches, using the classical three subdivisions of the field: supervised learning, unsupervised learning and reinforcement learning. Each of these approaches uses the mathematical functions in a different way.

Results of "Are You a Nerd?" game

Facebook

EURLex News

CELEX:32018D1700: Council Implementing Decision (EU) 2018/1700 of 6 November 2018 amending Implementing Decision 2013/54/EU authorising the Republic of Slovenia to introduce a special measure derogating from Article 287 of Directive 2006/112/EC on the common system of value added tax
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018L1695: Council Directive (EU) 2018/1695 of 6 November 2018 amending Directive 2006/112/EC on the common system of value added tax as regards the period of application of the optional reverse charge mechanism in relation to supplies of certain goods and services susceptible to fraud and of the Quick Reaction Mechanism against VAT fraud
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32009R0810R(04): Corrigendum to Regulation (EC) No 810/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 establishing a Community Code on Visas (Visa Code) (OJ L 243, 15.9.2009)
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R1672: Regulation (EU) 2018/1672 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2018 on controls on cash entering or leaving the Union and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1889/2005
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R1092R(01): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R1670: Regulation (EU) 2018/1670 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2018 amending Regulation (EC) No 110/2008 as regards nominal quantities for the placing on the Union market of single distilled shochu produced by pot still and bottled in Japan
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32008R0767R(05): Corrigendum to Regulation (EC) No 767/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 July 2008 concerning the Visa Information System (VIS) and the exchange of data between Member States on short-stay visas (VIS Regulation) (OJ L 218, 13.8.2008)
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018L1673: Directive (EU) 2018/1673 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2018 on combating money laundering by criminal law
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1674: Decision (EU) 2018/1674 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2018 amending Council Decision 2003/17/EC as regards the equivalence of field inspections carried out in the Federative Republic of Brazil on fodder plant seed-producing crops and cereal seed-producing crops and on the equivalence of fodder plant seed and cereal seed produced in the Federative Republic of Brazil, and as regards the equivalence of field inspections carried out in the Republic of Moldova on cereal seed-producing crops, vegetable seed-producing crops and oil and fibre plant seed-producing crops and on the equivalence of cereal seed, vegetable seed and oil and fibre plant seed produced in the Republic of Moldova
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1675: Decision (EU) 2018/1675 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 2 October 2018 on the mobilisation of the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund following an application from the Netherlands — EGF/2018/001 NL/Financial service activities
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R1671: Regulation (EU) 2018/1671 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2018 amending Regulation (EU) 2017/825 to increase the financial envelope of the Structural Reform Support Programme and adapt its general objective
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1696: Council Implementing Decision (EU) 2018/1696 of 13 July 2018 on the operating rules of the selection panel provided for in Article 14(3) of Regulation (EU) 2017/1939 implementing enhanced cooperation on the establishment of the European Public Prosecutor's Office (‘the EPPO’)
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1697: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1697 of 6 November 2018 on the position to be taken on behalf of the European Union within the European Committee for drawing up standards in the field of inland navigation and within the Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine on the adoption of standards concerning technical requirements for inland waterway vessels
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1109(01): Council Decision of 6 November 2018 appointing the members of the Scientific and Technical Committee
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R1628R(01): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D0340R(01): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32017R2393R(03): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32016R1011R(04): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32004R0854R(13): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R1628R(02): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1676: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1676 of 15 October 2018 on the signing, on behalf of the European Union, of the Investment Protection Agreement between the European Union and its Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Singapore, of the other part
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1666: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1666 of 6 November 2018 appointing two members and five alternate members, proposed by the Portuguese Republic, of the Committee of the Regions
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1665: Council Decision (EU, Euratom) 2018/1665 of 6 November 2018 appointing a member, proposed by the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, of the European Economic and Social Committee
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1667: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1667 of 6 November 2018 appointing an alternate member, proposed by the Kingdom of the Netherlands, of the Committee of the Regions
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1663: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1663 of 6 November 2018 on the position to be taken on behalf of the European Union within the European Committee for drawing up standards in the field of inland navigation and within the Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine concerning the adoption of European standards for professional qualifications in inland navigation
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1664: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1664 of 6 November 2018 amending Decision 1999/70/EC concerning the external auditors of the national central banks, as regards the external auditors of Lietuvos bankas
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32015L2193R(01): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1108(01): Council Decision of 6 November 2018 appointing two members of the Governing Board of the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training for Bulgaria and Portugal
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1656: Council Decision (CFSP) 2018/1656 of 6 November 2018 amending Decision (CFSP) 2017/2074 concerning restrictive measures in view of the situation in Venezuela
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R1654: Council Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/1654 of 6 November 2018 implementing Regulation (EU) 2017/1509 concerning restrictive measures against the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R1653: Council Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/1653 of 6 November 2018 implementing Regulation (EU) 2017/2063 concerning restrictive measures in view of the situation in Venezuela
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1657: Council Implementing Decision (CFSP) 2018/1657 of 6 November 2018 implementing Decision (CFSP) 2016/849 concerning restrictive measures against the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1655: Council Decision (CFSP) 2018/1655 of 6 November 2018 amending Decision (CFSP) 2016/2382 establishing a European Security and Defence College (ESDC)
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1651: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1651 of 31 October 2018 on the financial contributions to be paid by Member States to finance the European Development Fund, including the third instalment for 2018
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1465R(01): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.          Rectificatif à la décision (PESC) 2018/1465 du Conseil du 28 septembre 2018 modifiant la décision (PESC) 2015/1333 concernant des mesures restrictives en raison de la situation en Libye (JO L 245 du 1.10.2018)
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R0956R(01): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R1628: Council Regulation (EU) 2018/1628 of 30 October 2018 fixing for 2019 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks applicable in the Baltic Sea and amending Regulation (EU) 2018/120 as regards certain fishing opportunities in other waters
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32016R0399R(03): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.          Berichtigung der Verordnung (EU) 2016/399 des Europäischen Parlaments und des Rates vom 9. März 2016 über einen Gemeinschaftskodex für das Überschreiten der Grenzen durch Personen (Schengener Grenzkodex) (ABl. L 77 vom 23.3.2016)
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R0088R(01): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32012L0028R(03): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32012L0028R(04): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R0848R(04): Corrigendum to Regulation (EU) 2018/848 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018 on organic production and labelling of organic products and repealing Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 (OJ L 150, 14.6.2018)
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R1285R(01): Corrigendum to Council Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/1285 of 24 September 2018 implementing Article 21(5) of Regulation (EU) 2016/44 concerning restrictive measures in view of the situation in Libya (OJ L 240, 25.9.2018)
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1290R(01): Corrigendum to Council Implementing Decision (CFSP) 2018/1290 of 24 September 2018 implementing Decision (CFSP) 2015/1333 concerning restrictive measures in view of the situation in Libya (OJ L 240, 25.9.2018)
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R1606: Council Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/1606 of 25 October 2018 implementing Regulation (EU) 2017/1509 concerning restrictive measures against the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R1604: Council Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/1604 of 25 October 2018 implementing Regulation (EU) No 1284/2009 imposing certain specific restrictive measures in respect of the Republic of Guinea
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1611: Council Decision (CFSP) 2018/1611 of 25 October 2018 amending Decision 2010/638/CFSP concerning restrictive measures against the Republic of Guinea
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1612: Council Decision (CFSP) 2018/1612 of 25 October 2018 amending Decision (CFSP) 2015/1763 concerning restrictive measures in view of the situation in Burundi
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1613: Council Implementing Decision (CFSP) 2018/1613 of 25 October 2018 implementing Decision (CFSP) 2016/849 concerning restrictive measures against the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1603: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1603 of 18 September 2018 on the conclusion on behalf of the Union of the Cooperation Agreement between the European Union and the Agency for Aerial Navigation Safety in Africa and Madagascar (ASECNA) on the development of satellite navigation and the provision of associated services in ASECNA's area of competence for the benefit of civil aviation
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1610: Council Decision (CFSP) 2018/1610 of 25 October 2018 amending Decision 2010/573/CFSP concerning restrictive measures against the leadership of the Transnistrian region of the Republic of Moldova
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1609: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1609 of 28 September 2018 on the position to be taken on behalf of the European Union within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Working Party on Customs Questions affecting Transport and within the UNECE Inland Transport Committee concerning the adoption of the Convention on the facilitation of border crossing procedures for passengers, luggage and load-luggage carried in international traffic by rail
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R1605: Council Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/1605 of 25 October 2018 implementing Regulation (EU) 2015/1755 concerning restrictive measures in view of the situation in Burundi
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1599: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1599 of 15 October 2018 on the signing, on behalf of the European Union, of the Free Trade Agreement between the European Union and the Republic of Singapore
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1601: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1601 of 15 October 2018 on the position to be taken on behalf of the European Union at the International Maritime Organization during the 73rd session of the Marine Environment Protection Committee and the 100th session of the Maritime Safety Committee, on the adoption of amendments to regulation 14 of Annex VI to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships and to the International Code on the Enhanced Programme of Inspections During Surveys of Bulk Carriers and Oil Tankers, 2011
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1600: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1600 of 28 September 2018 concerning the request of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to take part in some of the provisions of the Schengen acquis relating to the European Union Agency for the operational management of large-scale IT systems in the area of freedom, security and justice (eu-LISA)
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D0994R(01): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R1091R(01): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.          Berichtigung der Verordnung 2018/1091 des Europäischen Parlaments und des Rates vom 18. Juli 2018 über integrierte Statistiken zu landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben und zur Aufhebung der Verordnungen (EG) Nr. 1166/2008 und (EU) Nr. 1337/2011 (ABl. L 200 vom 7.8.2018)
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018B1577: Definitive adoption (EU, Euratom) 2018/1577 of Amending budget No 4 of the European Union for the financial year 2018
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1588: Council Decision (EU, Euratom) 2018/1588 of 15 October 2018 appointing a member, proposed by the Kingdom of Sweden, of the European Economic and Social Committee
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1589: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1589 of 15 October 2018 appointing two alternate members, proposed by the Republic of Estonia, of the Committee of the Regions
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1582: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1582 of 15 October 2018 on the position to be taken on behalf of the Union within the Joint Committee established by the Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Partnership and Cooperation between the European Union and its Member States, of the one part, and the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, of the other part, as regards the adoption of the rules of procedure of the Joint Committee, and the establishent of subcommittees and specialised working groups and the adoption of their terms of reference
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1578: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1578 of 18 September 2018 concerning the extension of the Agreement for scientific and technological cooperation between the European Community and the Government of the United States of America
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R1563: Council Regulation (Euratom) 2018/1563 of 15 October 2018 on the Research and Training Programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (2019–2020) complementing the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, and repealing Regulation (Euratom) No 1314/2013
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1572: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1572 of 15 October 2018 on the application by the Union of Regulations Nos 9, 63 and 92 of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe on uniform provisions concerning the approval of three-wheeled vehicles, mopeds and of the replacement exhaust silencing systems for L-category vehicles with regard to sound emission
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1573: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1573 of 15 October 2018 establishing the position to be taken on behalf of the European Union within the EPA Committee set up by the stepping stone Economic Partnership Agreement between Ghana, of the one part, and the European Community and its Member States, of the other part, as regards the adoption of a Decision of the EPA Committee concerning the accession of the Republic of Croatia to the European Union
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R0848R(03): Corrigendum to Regulation (EU) 2018/848 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018 on organic production and labelling of organic products and repealing Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 (OJ L 260, 17.10.2018)
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1250R(01): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1574: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1574 of 16 October 2018 appointing a member, proposed by the Italian Republic, of the Committee of the Regions
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1018(01): Council Decision of 15 October 2018 appointing members and alternate members of the Advisory Committee on Freedom of Movement for Workers for Portugal
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1561: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1561 of 15 October 2018 establishing the position to be taken on behalf of the European Union within the EPA Committee set up by the interim Agreement with a view to an Economic Partnership Agreement between the European Community and its Member States, of the one part, and the Central Africa Party, of the other part, as regards the adoption of a Decision of the EPA Committee concerning the accession of the Republic of Croatia to the European Union
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1560: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1560 of 15 October 2018 establishing the position to be taken on behalf of the European Union within the EPA Committee set up by the stepping stone Economic Partnership Agreement between Côte d'Ivoire, of the one part, and the European Community and its Member States, of the other part, as regards the adoption of a Decision of the EPA Committee concerning the accession of the Republic of Croatia to the European Union
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R1554: Council Regulation (EU) 2018/1554 of 15 October 2018 amending Regulation (EU) No 1370/2013 as regards the quantitative limitation for buying-in skimmed milk powder
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32006R1932R(04): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1549: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1549 of 11 October 2018 on the signing, on behalf of the Union, of the Arrangement between the European Union, of the one part, and the Kingdom of Norway, the Republic of Iceland, the Swiss Confederation and the Principality of Liechtenstein, of the other part, on the participation by those States in the European Agency for the operational management of large-scale IT systems in the area of freedom, security and justice
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R0848R(02): Corrigendum to Regulation (EU) 2018/848 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018 on organic production and labelling of organic products and repealing Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 (OJ L 150, 14.6.2018)
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1552: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1552 of 28 September 2018 on the position to be taken, on behalf of the European Union, within the Cooperation Council established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Azerbaijan, of the other part, with regard to the adoption of the EU-Azerbaijan Partnership Priorities
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R1542: Council Regulation (EU) 2018/1542 of 15 October 2018 concerning restrictive measures against the proliferation and use of chemical weapons
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R1541: Council Regulation (EU) 2018/1541 of 2 October 2018 amending Regulations (EU) No 904/2010 and (EU) 2017/2454 as regards measures to strengthen administrative cooperation in the field of value added tax
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1546: Council Decision (CFSP) 2018/1546 of 15 October 2018 amending Decision (CFSP) 2017/1425 on a European Union stabilisation action in Mopti and Segou
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1544: Council Decision (CFSP) 2018/1544 of 15 October 2018 concerning restrictive measures against the proliferation and use of chemical weapons
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1545: Council Decision (CFSP) 2018/1545 of 15 October 2018 amending Decision (CFSP) 2017/1869 on the European Union Advisory Mission in support of Security Sector Reform in Iraq (EUAM Iraq)
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32013R1289R(02): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1536: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1536 of 9 October 2018 establishing the position to be taken on behalf of the European Union within the Committee on Government Procurement on the accession of Australia to the Revised Agreement on Government Procurement
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R1539: Council Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/1539 of 15 October 2018 implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/1686 imposing additional restrictive measures directed against ISIL (Da'esh) and Al-Qaeda and natural and legal persons, entities or bodies associated with them
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1528: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1528 of 11 October 2018 on the signing, on behalf of the Union, of the Voluntary Partnership Agreement between the European Union and the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam on forest law enforcement, governance and trade
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1505: Decision (EU) 2018/1505 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 September 2018 on the mobilisation of the European Union Solidarity Fund to provide assistance to Bulgaria, Greece, Lithuania and Poland
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1535: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1535 of 28 September 2018 on the signing, on behalf of the Union, of the Status Agreement between the European Union and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia on actions carried out by the European Border and Coast Guard Agency in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1540: Council Decision (CFSP) 2018/1540 of 15 October 2018 amending Decision (CFSP) 2016/1693 concerning restrictive measures against ISIL (Da'esh) and Al-Qaeda and persons, groups, undertakings and entities associated with them
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32017R2226R(01): Corrigendum to Regulation (EU) 2017/2226 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2017 establishing an Entry/Exit System (EES) to register entry and exit data and refusal of entry data of third-country nationals crossing the external borders of the Member States and determining the conditions for access to the EES for law enforcement purposes, and amending the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement and Regulations (EC) No 767/2008 and (EU) No 1077/2011 (OJ L 327, 9.12.2017)
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32001R0539R(05): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32010R1211R(01): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R1504: Regulation (EU) 2018/1504 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 2 October 2018 repealing Regulation (EU) No 256/2014 concerning the notification to the Commission of investment projects in energy infrastructure within the European Union
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32017R0821R(02): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1518: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1518 of 9 October 2018 amending Decision 1999/70/EC concerning the external auditors of the national central banks, as regards the external auditors of Banco de España
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018R1046R(01): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32008L0115R(02): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32014R0376R(03): The corrigendum does not concern the search language used.
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1510: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1510 of 8 October 2018 appointing two members, proposed by the Italian Republic, of the Committee of the Regions
Eur-Lex
CELEX:32018D1509: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1509 of 2 October 2018 appointing a member, proposed by the Federal Republic of Germany, of the Committee of the Regions
Eur-Lex

REIsearch NEWS

news
12/11/2018

Big data used to predict the future

news
12/11/2018

Data Privacy And Cybersecurity Issues In Mergers And Acquisitions

news
11/11/2018

2018 Cybersecurity Market Report

news
09/11/2018

Disconnecting from the IoT: Are we in too deep?

news
08/11/2018

Chinese news agency adds AI anchors to its broadcast team

news
08/11/2018

AI is not “magic dust” for your company, says Google’s Cloud AI boss

news
07/11/2018

West Virginians abroad in 29 countries have voted by mobile device, in the biggest blockchain-based voting test ever

news
06/11/2018

ANYmal robot tested on offshore platform

news
05/11/2018

“Towards a Good AI Society” Summit focuses on ethics of digital technologies

news
05/11/2018

Databases vs data lakes: Which should you be using?

news
02/11/2018

iNerd quiz: one out of two Europeans scores as a digital Mr. Bean

news
02/11/2018

Deep learning is not a replacement for human creativity, period

news
31/10/2018

Self-driving cars go fully driverless on California roads

news
30/10/2018

Inside Europe’s quest to build an unhackable quantum internet

news
27/10/2018

An intelligent virtual agent-based commentary system for small-scale cyber security competitions

news
25/10/2018

HTC's 'Blockchain Phone' Launches as a Wild Experiment

news
24/10/2018

Cybersecurity: a growing concern

news
23/10/2018

Facebook says hackers accessed 29 million people's accounts

news
18/10/2018

An Alternative History of Silicon Valley Disruption

news
17/10/2018

A Day In The Life Of Ms. Smith: How IoT And IIoT Enhance Our Lives

Twitter Feed